About SonoSpot

US Director Emeritus, Stanford Emergency Medicine Medical Director, Stanford Emergency Medicine Co-Chair, Case Review Committee, Stanford Emergency Medicine

SonoDoc: A free online POCUS game!

It’s here! SonoDoc: A fun, online game to learn bedside #ultrasound in a case-based way. Learn #POCUS indications, how to’s, integrate into case mgmt, how to use it for next steps/dispo. Play FREE or Stanford CME ($25). HUGE thanks to many folks for authoring cases/beta testing/feedback/support. 5 years in the making, and so happy to share it with you all. Enjoy! http://sonodocgame.com

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SonoApp- Bedside ultrasound for thyroid nodules? – a patient’s question and experience

This post involves a personal experience from a free lance writer who asked me whether we (EM or primary care docs) should/can be doing bedside ultrasound for an assessment of the thyroid when we feel something wrong – even if its for the sole purpose of expediting care and biopsy, or alleviating concerns with a negative study.  It was a valid question, and she wrote about her experience below. The thyroid is not a difficult gland to find, nor is it a technically difficult ultrasound to perform – although not a current use for bedside ultrasound, it may start to be given the ease to which nodules can be seen: (for pictures of normal thyroid and abnormal thyroid nodules, see the end of the post  – the pics are not her thyroid)

Point-of-Care Ultrasounds: Can They be Used for Thyroid Nodules?

At a regular physical exam, my doctor discovered a small lump in my neck. She said it was on my thyroid, and referred me to an endocrinologist for further evaluation. At only 19 years old, I was scared and extremely uneducated in regards to thyroid health and diagnoses. My endocrinologist ordered a radiology ultrasound to be done at a later time where I had the technician hovering over me. After the doctor declared I had two nodules, I was scheduled to go back yet again for an ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) to help rule out cancer. This persistent waiting from one appointment to another for small amounts of information were frustrating, and I wondered why my own doctor couldn’t just do the initial ultrasound to visualize the nodules, streamlining the process and expediting my work up.

The day finally arrived for the FNA, and the scene couldn’t be more uncomfortable—and comical at the same time. As the technician tried to gain an image of the right spots with the large wand, the endocrinologist struggled to bypass the size of it in order to gain the samples he needed. On top of that, it was nearly four months from the time of my original physical exam before I found out I had benign nodules. I was told I would need to follow up with a radiology ultrasound every few years.

Point-of-care (POC) ultrasounds, units that are small and possibly hand-held that are increasing in popularity among physicians and emergency doctors, can used by primary care doctors with their assessment. Not only are they portable, but they are easier and more comfortable to use for all parties involved. While not widely publicized or used for thyroid nodules yet, there is potential that POC ultrasounds could aid in diagnosis and follow-up for related patients.

Defining Thyroid Nodules

Thyroid nodules are areas of abnormal cell growths within the thyroid gland. Depending on their size, nodules may form a visible mass in the neck. Some can also cause a goiter, or enlarged thyroid gland. The majority of thyroid nodules are not cancerous. However, an ultrasound and FNA can rule this out. These nodules may go undetected for years. Others can coexist with other related issues, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Thyroid nodules can also become painful to the touch and when you swallow.

Unless you can feel a lump in your thyroid gland, these types of nodules are first detected through a physical exam of the neck. Conventional radiology ultrasounds are currently used as a follow-up to locate the nodules and rule out any potential problems.

Role of POC Ultrasounds

On a larger scale, the increased use of POC ultrasounds can help the health of patients. It can even help save lives: although rare, thyroid cancer can be deadly if not caught early. Most cases of thyroid nodules and masses occur in older patients, some of whom may not be able to make it to radiology offices for a traditional ultrasound. By employing the use of a POC ultrasound, a physician can quicken the diagnosis and make the process more comfortable for patients. The fact is that once patients leave their primary care physicians’ offices, it is up to them to follow up on referrals to ultrasound appointments. Having a POC device handy ensures that a patient won’t miss these crucial diagnoses.

Having an ultrasound for thyroid nodules is easier with POC ultrasounds. Since the area of investigation is small, this approach makes the most sense when considering comfort for both doctor and patient.

Another benefit is the cost. POC ultrasounds cost providers less money, and it may be more affordable to patients. With the rising costs of healthcare, more and more patients are missing out on critical exams. By making thyroid scans more affordable, patients may be less likely to skip out on their appointments. The downside is that POC ultrasounds are not used for thyroid nodules yet. By pushing for their use in all areas of healthcare, POC may ease the ultrasound experience and even save lives.

Resources

Kristeen Cherney

Author Bio: Kristeen Cherney is a freelance health and lifestyle writer who also has a certificate in nutrition. Her work has been published on numerous health-related websites.

Pics from aium.org – NORMAL ADULT THYROID

normal thyroid

Pics form ultrasound-images.com :

ADENOMAS

thyroid_adenomatous nodules thyroid_follicular adenoma

FOLLICULAR ADENOMAthyroid_follicular adenomas

PAPILLARY CARCINOMAthyroid_papillary carcinoma

 

SonoTutorial: Ultrasound guided Suprapubic bladder aspiration – in NEJM #FOAMus

Ok, this is awesome. I know you are likely thinking that i am talking about ultrasound and how it helps with bladder aspiration, and although i do think that is awesome, it’s not that which makes me smile right now. It is that it is highlighted in the New England Journal of Medicine – oh yes, that’s right. You’ll need to be a subscriber to see the video, but you can see the front page of the article here. Hooray for the NEJM on highlighting ultrasound in this important application for our patients!

 

SonoStudy: Trends in Radiology orders over last decade – effect of POCUS? #FOAMus

I am going to say a statement that is going to be shocking to some of you: There has been a decline in CT use by the emergency department over the last 2 decades, according to Raja et al. Can you believe it? I couldnt either. I previously thought, now that CT is so easy to get, of course everyone is ordering them more. There have been several studies showing an increase in ionizing radiation exposure over the last decade, so the results are a bit confusing. Im sure when compared to 20+ years ago, we are ordering more in total, but the trend may be that we are declining in ordering. Well, not only has Raja came to this conclusion, but when seeing how the FAST scan has affected abdominal CT scan orders, then it makes me wonder if point of care ultrasound (POCUS) is one of the main reasons for this trend. Yeah, I know, it’s a stretch, but I cannot imagine it isnt a factor, along with ALARA, and other discussions on radiation exposure.

In a study by Sheng et al – which includes some of my heroes, Drs. Vickie Noble and Andrew Liteplo – they looked at the trend of abdominal CT orders in adult trauma patients at their institution. Could it be that bedside ultrasound has effected CT orders everywhere? Their abstract is below:

Objective. We sought to describe the trend in abdominal CT use in adult trauma patients after a point-of-care emergency ultrasound program was introduced. We hypothesized that abdominal CT use would decrease as FAST use increased. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of 19940 consecutive trauma patients over the age of 18 admitted to our level one trauma center from 2002 through 2011. Data was collected retrospectively and recorded in a trauma registry. We plotted the rate of FAST and abdominal CT utilization over time. Head CT was used as a surrogate for overall CT utilization rates during the study period. Results. Use of FAST increased by an average of 2.3% (95% CI 2.1 to 2.5, P < 0.01) while abdominal CT use decreased by the same rate annually. The percentage of patients who received FAST as the sole imaging modality for the abdomen rose from 2.0% to 21.9% while those who only received an abdominal CT dropped from 21.7% to 2.3%. Conclusions. Abdominal CT use in our cohort declined while FAST utilization grew in the last decade. The rising use of FAST may have played a role in the reduction of abdominal CT performed as decline in CT utilization appears contrary to overall trends.

SonoCredentialing: ACGME ultrasound milestones summarized by @Takeokun

@Takeokun is not only one of the authors for the CORD article on this topic, but also has summarized the ACGME milestones’ ultrasound portion quite nicely on his site. It is well deserving of mention –

Go here for the full post.

Some Downloadables from his post:

  1. Core vs Advanced Emergency Ultrasound for Residents
  2. Assessment methods with skills tested, limitations, and associated milestones
  3. CORD US-SDOT Forms
  4. New Innovations version of the JMTF US milestone evaluation form

SonoGlobalHealth – Ultrasound in Global Health resources available @AIUM_Ultrasound

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For those of us who travel, teach, and spread the gospel of ‘sound – we look for resources that may help in knowing the conversation for this topic. AIUM has a page that could help in your needs, as well as see photos of trips that their physicians have undertaken for ultrasound teaching and advancement.

Ive posted on other groups that have gone all over the world, in addition to my own experiences – including TO-theWorld who enhanced maternal education and minimizing MTFT of HIV.

For other resources, that are free for ultrasound in global health:

Partners in Health

World Health organization

Here’e a video that discusses ultrasound in global health, with a cameo photo of our own Dr. Jessica Ngo using it during Stanford’s emergency response to Haiti after the disaster with our SEMPER team.

SonoFlowCharts – The Lung Ultrasound Flowchart – A lines & B lines #FOAMed #FOAMus

When I teach my fellows/residents/students in the Ultrasound office, there is a white board behind me, which I’ll use to draw, write, and place arrows linking one thing to another – it doesnt ever look that great in its final form. Then @LittleMedic – an awesome blogger/student in Sydney Australia –  took the pic I posted of my white board scratches and made it read-able! Oh, if you only knew what the board looked like, you would thank him with all your heart, as I do now. Lung US flow chart