Bowel and Pediatric Curriculum

US didactics:

Week 1- Bowel US for Small Bowel Obstruction –

Week 2 – Bowel US for Appendicitis –

Week 3- Bowel US for Intussusception and Pyloric Stenosis –

Week 4 – Case-Based review by Faculty, Fellows Present and review Bowel US Studies


Reading/review List:

SonoGuide: TBD

SonoSpot: Abdominal Tutorial, Cases, Studies, Tips &Tricks

SonoSpot: Appendix TutorialCasesStudiesTips &Tricks

Podcast: Ultrasound Podcast: SBOAppendicitis

AIUM UltrasoundFirst/Sound Judgement Series: Sonography First for Appendicitis



Ma/Mateer/Blaivas chapters

9. General Surgery Applications, Masaaki Ogata

18. Pediatric Applications, Daniel D. Price and Michael A. Peterson


Dawson/Mallin iBook chapters:

Volume 2 – Bowel US, Appendix


Small bowel obstruction Studies: PubMed Collection

Appendicitis Studies: PubMed Collection

Pediatric US Studies: PubMed Collection


Small Bowel Obstruction by US Studies

Czechowski J: Conventional radiography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction and strangulation.  Acta Radiol 1996; 37; 186-

Di Mizio R, Grassi R, Marchese E, et al.  “Uncompensated” small bowel obstruction in adults: ultrasonographic findings of free fluid between loops and its prognostic value (in Italian with English abstract).  Radiologica Medica. 1995; 89:787-791.

Grassi R, Romano S, D’Amario F, Giorgio Rossi A, Romano L, Pinto F, Di Mizio R The relevance of free fluid between intestinal loops detected by sonography in the clinical assessment of small bowel obstruction in adults. Eur J Radiol. 2004 Apr;50(1):5-14.


Jang TB, Schindler D, Kaji AH. Bedside ultrasonography for the detection of small bowel obstruction in the emergencydepartment. Emerg Med J. 2011 Aug;28(8):676-8. doi: 10.1136/emj.2010.095729. Epub 2010 Aug 22.

Ogata M, Imai S, Hosotani R, et al.  Abdominal sonography for the diagnosis of strangulation in small bowel obstruction.  Br J Surg. 1994; 81:421-424.

Ogata M, Mateer JR, Condon RE.Prospective evaluation of abdominal sonography for the diagnosis of bowel obstruction. Ann Surg. 1996 Mar;223(3):237-41.

Schmutz GR, Benko A, Fournier L, et al.  Small bowel obstruction: role and contribution of sonography.  Eur Radiol. 1997; 7:1054-1058.

Shiver SA, Blaivas M. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to linitis plastica of the stomach as shown on transabdominal sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 2004 Jul;23(7):989-92. No abstract available.

Taylor MR, Lalani N. Adult small bowel obstruction. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jun;20(6):527-44. doi: 10.1111/acem.12150.

Unlüer EE, Yavaşi O, Eroğlu O, Yilmaz C, Akarca FK. Ultrasonography by emergency medicine and radiology residents for the diagnosis of small bowelobstruction. Eur J Emerg Med. 2010 Oct;17(5):260-4. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0b013e328336c736.

Yu W, Ailu C, Bing W. Sonographic diagnosis of fetal intestinal volvulus with ileal atresia: a case report. J Clin Ultrasound. 2013 May;41(4):255-7. doi: 10.1002/jcu.21896. Epub 2012 May 15.

Zironi G, Modolon C, Cavazza M. Emergency ultrasound and gallstone ileus. Eur J Emerg Med. 2007 Apr;14(2):94-6.


Appendix Studies:

Abo A, Shannon M, Taylor G, Bachur R. The influence of body mass index on the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography in diagnosing appendicitis in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Aug;27(8):731-6. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e318226c8b0.

Bachur RG, Hennelly K, Callahan MJ, Monuteaux MC. Advanced radiologic imaging for pediatric appendicitis, 2005-2009: trends and outcomes. J Pediatr. 2012 Jun;160(6):1034-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.11.037. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Blumfield E, Nayak G, Srinivasan R, Muranaka MT, Blitman NM, Blumfield A, Levin TL. Ultrasound for differentiation between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis in pediatric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 May;200(5):957-62. doi: 10.2214/AJR.12.9801.

Estey A, Poonai N, Lim R. Appendix not seen: the predictive value of secondary inflammatory sonographic signs. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013 Apr;29(4):435-9. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e318289e8d5.

Fox JC, Hunt MJ, Zlidenny AM, Oshita MH, Barajas G, Langdorf MI. Retrospective analysis of emergency department ultrasound for acute appendicitis. Cal J Emerg Med. 2007 May;8(2):41-5.

Garcia Peña BM, Mandl KD, Kraus SJ, Fischer AC, Fleisher GR, Lund DP, Taylor GA. Ultrasonography and limited computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of appendicitis in children. JAMA. 1999 Sep 15;282(11):1041-6.

Mittal MK, Dayan PS, Macias CG, Bachur RG, Bennett J, Dudley NC, Bajaj L, Sinclair K, Stevenson MD, Kharbanda AB; Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Performance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of appendicitis in children in a multicenter cohort. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jul;20(7):697-702. doi: 10.1111/acem.12161.

Molander P, Paavonen J, Sjöberg J, Savelli L, Cacciatore B. Transvaginal sonography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Nov;20(5):496-501.

Park NH, Oh HE, Park HJ, Park JY. Ultrasonography of normal and abnormal appendix in children. World J Radiol. 2011 Apr 28;3(4):85-91. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v3.i4.85.

Parks NA, Schroeppel TJ. Update on imaging for acute appendicitis. Surg Clin North Am. 2011 Feb;91(1):141-54. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2010.10.017. Review.

Ramarajan N, Krishnamoorthi R, Barth R, Ghanouni P, Mueller C, Dannenburg B, Wang NE. An interdisciplinary initiative to reduce radiation exposure: evaluation of appendicitis in a pediatricemergency department with clinical assessment supported by a staged ultrasound and computed tomography pathway. Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Nov;16(11):1258-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00511.x.

Reich B, Zalut T, Weiner SG. An international evaluation of ultrasound vs. computed tomography in the diagnosis ofappendicitis. Int J Emerg Med. 2011 Oct 29;4:68. doi: 10.1186/1865-1380-4-68.

Stephens PL, Mazzucco JJ. Comparison of ultrasound and the Alvarado score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Conn Med. 1999 Mar;63(3):137-40.

Sonography as the First Line of Evaluation in Children with Suspected Acute Appendicitis – in Journal of US in Medicine Aug 2012

Prospective Evaluation of a Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnosis of Appendicitis in Children – in Academic Emergency Medicine July 31, 2012

The Effect of Abdominal Pain Duration on the Accuracy of Diagnostic Imaging for Pediatric Appendicitis – in Annals of Emergency Medicine July 26, 2012

Imaging and the Use of Scores in the Diagnosis of Appendicitis in Children – in European Journal of Pediatric Surgery June 30, 2012

Surgeon-performed ultrasound at the bedside for the detection of appendicitis and gallstones: systematic review and meta-analysis – in American Journal of Surgery June 28, 2012

Diagnostic values of ultrasound and the Modified Alvarado Scoring System in acute appendicitis – in International Journal of Emergency Medicine June 6, 2012


Other Bowel Studies: Intussusception

Alletag MJ, Riera A, Langhan ML, Chen L. Use of emergency ultrasound in the diagnostic evaluation of an infant with vomiting. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Oct;27(10):986-9. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e318232a265.

Henderson AA, Anupindi SA, Servaes S, Markowitz RI, Aronson PL, McLoughlin RJ, Mistry RD. Comparison of 2-view abdominal radiographs with ultrasound in children with suspectedintussusception. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013 Feb;29(2):145-50. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e3182808af7.

Raymond-Dufresne É, Ghanayem H. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 2: Can emergency physicians safely rule in or rule out paediatric intussusception in theemergency department using bedside ultrasound? Emerg Med J. 2012 Oct;29(10):854-5. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2012-201872.3. Review.

Riera A, Hsiao AL, Langhan ML, Goodman TR, Chen L. Diagnosis of intussusception by physician novice sonographers in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Sep;60(3):264-8. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.02.007. Epub 2012 Mar 15

Stolz LA, Kizza H, Little K, Kasekende J. Intussusception detected with ultrasound in a resource-limited setting. Lancet. 2013 Jun 8;381(9882):2054. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60690-X. No abstract available.


Other Bowel Studies: Pyloric stenosis

Sivitz AB, Tejani C, Cohen SG. Evaluation of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis by pediatric emergency physician sonography. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jul;20(7):646-51. doi: 10.1111/acem.12163. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Ball V, Devita D, Angelidis M. Images in emergency medicine. Infant with vomiting and weight loss. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Nov;52(5):496, 511. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.02.023. No abstract available.

Malcom GE 3rd, Raio CC, Del Rios M, Blaivas M, Tsung JW. Feasibility of emergency physician diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis using point-of-careultrasound: a multi-center case series. J Emerg Med. 2009 Oct;37(3):283-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.11.053. Epub 2008 Jun 24.

Vasavada P. Ultrasound evaluation of acute abdominal emergencies in infants and children. Radiol Clin North Am. 2004 Mar;42(2):445-56. Review.

Iqbal CW, Rivard DC, Mortellaro VE, Sharp SW, St Peter SD. Evaluation of ultrasonographic parameters in the diagnosis of pyloric stenosis relative to patient age and size. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Aug;47(8):1542-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.03.068. Review.

Costa Dias S, Swinson S, Torrão H, Gonçalves L, Kurochka S, Vaz CP, Mendes V. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: tips and tricks for ultrasound diagnosis. Insights Imaging. 2012 Jun;3(3):247-50. doi: 10.1007/s13244-012-0168-x. Epub 2012 May 1.


Other abdominal studies:

Blaivas M, Kirkpatrick AW, Rodriguez-Galvez M, Ball CG. Sonographic depiction of intraperitoneal free air. J Trauma. 2009 Sep;67(3):675. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31804b488d. No abstract available.

Kirkpatrick AW, Ball CG, Nicolaou S, Ledgerwood A, Lucas CE. Ultrasound detection of right-sided diaphragmatic injury; the “liver sliding” sign. Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Mar;24(2):251-2. No abstract available




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