MSK and Soft Tissue curriculum

US didactics:

Week 1  – Musculoskeletal US of the upper extremity (shoulder, elbow, wrist) –

Week 2- Musculoskeletal US of the lower extremity (hip, knee, ankle) –

Week 3 – Soft Tissue ultrasound – skin infection/abscess/lymph nodes/tendonitis/nec fsciitis-

Week 4- Case based presentations by Faculty, Fellows present and review MSK/Soft Tiss Studies –


Reading/Review List: 

SonoGuide: MSK and Soft TissueForeign Body removalI&D abscess and ENT

SonoSpot: TutorialCasesStudiesTips &Tricks

Podcasts: Soundbytes: MSK and Soft Tissue; Ultrasound Podcast: ScaphoidDistal radius Abscess

AIUM Practice Guidelines: Musculoskeletal

AIUM UltrasoundFirst/Sound Judgement Series: Shoulder Sonography , Abscess and Cellulitis, and Sonography on Tendons,



Ma/Mateer/Blaivas chapters:

16. Soft Tissue, Andreas Dewitz and Bradley W. Frazee


Dawson/Mallin iBook Chapters:

Volume 1, Chapter 13 – Joint injections

Volume 1, Chapter 14 – Hip

Volume 1, Chapter 15  Shoulder

Volume 2 – Soft Tissue


MSK Studies: Pubmed Collection

Soft Tissue Studies: Pubmed Collection


MSK Studies:


Adhikari S, Blaivas M. Utility of bedside sonography to distinguish soft tissue abnormalities from joint effusions in the emergency department. J Ultrasound Med 2010 Apr;29(4):519–526.

Barata I, Spencer R, Raio C, et al.  Ultrasound detection of long bone fractures in pediatric emergency department patients.  Annals of Emergency Medicine 2011 Oct;58(4):182-183.

Canagasabey MD, Callaghan MJ, Carley S. The Sonographic Ottawa Foot and Ankle Rules Study (the SOFAR Study). Emerg Med J. 2010 Oct 13

Chan SS. Emergency bedside ultrasound for diagnosis of rib fractures. Am J Emerg Med 2009 Jun;27(5):617-620.

Chen L, Kim Y, Moore CL.  Diagnosis and guided reduction of forearm fractures in children using bedside ultrasound.  Pediatric Emergency Care 2007 Aug;23(8):528-531.

Chern TC, Jou IM, Lai KA, et al. Sonography for monitoring closed reduction of displaced extra-articular distal radial fractures.  J Bone Joint Surg. 2002; 84-A(2):194-203.

Chinnock B, Khaletskiy A, et al.  Ultrasound-guided reduction of distal radius fractures.  J Emer Med2009; [Epub ahead of print].

Costantino TG, Roemer B, Leber EH. Septic arthritis and bursitis: emergency ultrasound can facilitate diagnosis. J Emerg Med. 2007;32(3):295-7.

Dulchavsky SA, Henry SE, Moed BR, et al.  Advanced ultrasonic diagnosis of extremity trauma: the FASTER examination.  Journal of Trauma  2002 Jul;53(1):28-32.

Engin G, Yekeler E, Güloglu R, et al. US versus conventional radiography in the diagnosis of sternal fractures. Acta Radiol 2000 May;41(3):296-299.

Freeman K, Dewitz A, Baker W. Ultrasound guided hip arthrocentesis in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:80-86.

Griffith JF, Rainer TH, Ching AS, Law KL, Cocks RA, Metreweli C. Sonography compared with radiography in revealing acute rib fracture.  AJR Am J Roentgenol, 1999; 173:1603-1609.

laton A, Poletti PA, Van Aaken J, Fusetti C, Della Santa D, Beaulieu JY, Becker CD. Occult fractures of the scaphoid: the role of ultrasonography in the emergency department.
Skeletal Radiol. 2011 Jan 1.

Jin W, Yang DM, Kim HC, Ryu KN. Diagnostic values of sonography for assessment of sternal fractures compared with conventional radiography and bone scans. J Ultrasound Med. 2006;25(10):1263-8.

McNeil CR, McManus J, Mehta S. The accuracy of portable ultrasonography to diagnose fractures in an austere environment. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2009;13(1):50-2.

Marshburn TH, Legome E, Sargsyan A, Li SM, Noble VA, Dulchavsky SA, Sims C, Robinson D. Goal-directed ultrasound in the detection of long-bone fractures. J Trauma. 2004;57(2):329-32.

Moak JH, Vaughan AJ, Silverberg BA Ultrasound-guided hip arthrocentesis in a child with hip pain and Fever. West J Emerg Med. 2012 Sep;13(4):316-9. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2011.10.6797

Park CH, Joung HH, Lee JH, et al. Usefulness of ultrasonography in the treatment of nasal bone fractures. J Trauma 2009 Dec;67(6):1323-1326.

Patel DD, Blumberg SM, Crain EF. The utility of bedside ultrasonography in identifying fractures and guiding fracture reduction in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 2009 Apr;25(4):221-225.

Riera A, Chen L. Ultrasound evaluation of skull fractures in children: a feasibility study. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012 May;28(5):420-5. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e318252da3b

Roy S, Dewitz A, Paul I. Ultrasound-assisted ankle arthrocentesis. Amer J Emerg Med. 1999;17:300-301.

Shavit I, Eidelman M, Galbraith R. Sonography of the hip-joint by the emergency physician: its role in the evaluation of children presenting with acute limp. Pediatr Emerg Care. Aug 2006;22(8):570-573.

Tayal VS, Antoniazzi J, Pariyadath M, Norton HJ Prospective use of ultrasound imaging to detect bony hand injuries in adults. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26(9):1143-8.

Tsung JW, Blaivas M. Emergency department diagnosis of pediatric hip effusion and guided arthrocentesis using point-of-care ultrasound. J Emerg Med. Nov 2008;35(4):393-399.

Tsung JW, Blaivas M.Dynamic scanning in the transverse plane for ultrasound-guided fracture reduction. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Nov;25(11):805. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181bec9b9. No abstract available

Vieira RL, Levy JA. Bedside ultrasonography to identify hip effusions in pediatric patients. Ann Emerg Med. Mar 2010;55(3):284-289.

Valley VT, Stahmer SA. Targeted musculoarticular sonography in the detection of joint effusions. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8:361-367.

Wiler JL, Costantino TG, Filippone L, Satz WComparison of ultrasound-guided and standard landmark techniques for knee arthrocentesis. J Emerg Med. 2010;39(1):76-82

You JS, Chung YE, Kim D, Park S, Chung SP. Role of sonography in the emergency room to diagnose sternal fractures. J Clin Ultrasound.2010;38(3):135-7.



Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Abdelwahab IF. Ultrasound of tendon tears. Part 1: general considerations and upper extremity. Skeletal Radiol. 2005 Sep;34(9):500–512.

Bianchi S, Poletti P-A, Martinoli C, Abdelwahab IF. Ultrasound appearance of tendon tears. Part 2: lower extremity and myotendinous tears. Skeletal Radiol. 2006 Feb;35(2):63–77.

Farin PU Sonography of the biceps tendon of the shoulder: normal and pathologic findings. J Clin Ultrasound. 1996 Jul-Aug;24(6):309-16

LaRocco BG, Zlupko G, Sierzenski P. Ultrasound diagnosis of quadriceps tendon rupture. J Emerg Med. 2008;35:293-295.

Valley VT, Shermer CD.  Use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pes anserine tendinitis: A case report.  Journal of Emergency Medicine 2001 Jan;20(1):43-45.

Wu T, Roque PJ, Green J, et al.  Bedside ultrasound evaluation of tendon injuries.  American Journal of Emergency Medicine  2012 Jan.

Zaia B, Gharahbaghian L Patellar tendonitis. West J Emerg Med. 2011 Feb;12(1):139-40. No abstract available

Kijowski R, De Smet AA.The role of ultrasound in the evaluation of sports medicine injuries of the upper extremity.Clin Sports Med. 2006 Jul;25(3):569-90, viii. Review





Edlow JA, Juang P, Margulies S, et al.  Rectus sheath hematoma.  Annals of Emergency Medicine.  1999  nov;34(5)671-675.

Limberg RM, Doughert C, Mallon WK.  Enoxaparin-induced bleeding resulting in compartment syndrome of the thigh: a case report.  Journal of Emergency Medicine 2011 Jul;41(1):e1-e4.

Nomura JT, Sierzenski PR. Ultrasound diagnosis of penile fracture. J Emerg Med 2010 Apr;38(3):362-365.

Peetrons P.  Ultrasound of muscles.  European Radiology  2002 Jan;12(1):35-43.

Ash A, Miller J, Preston D Point-of-care ultrasound used to exclude penile fracture. Crit Ultrasound J. 2012 Jul 13;4(1):17. doi: 10.1186/2036-7902-4-17.

Nazarian LN.  The top 10 reasons musculoskeletal sonography is an important complementary or alternative technique to MRI. Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190(6):1621-6.

Kaplan PA, Matamoros A Jr, Anderson JC.  Sonography of the musculoskeletal system. Am J Roentgenol. 1990;155(2):237-45.


Soft Tissue Studies:

Oelze L, Wu S, Carnell J. Emergency ultrasonography for the early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis: a case series from the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Mar;31(3):632.e5-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2012.09.026. Epub 2013 Jan 21. No abstract available.

Wronski M, Slodkowski M, Cebulski W, Karkocha D, Krasnodebski IW.Necrotizing fasciitis: early sonographic diagnosis. J Clin Ultrasound. 2011 May;39(4):236-9. doi: 10.1002/jcu.20766. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

Hosek WT, Laeger TC. Early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis with soft tissue ultrasound. Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Oct;16(10):1033. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00528.x. Epub 2009 Sep 3. No abstract available.

Ahuja AT, Ying M. Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymph nodes. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(5):1691-9.

Chau CL, Griffith JF.  Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances. Clin Radiol. 2005;60(2):149-59.

Chao HC, Lin SJ, Huang YC, Lin TY.  Sonographic evaluation of cellulitis in children. J Ultrasound Med. 2000;19(11):743-9.

Morrison D, Blaivas M, Lyon M.  Emergency diagnosis of Fournier’s gangrene with bedside ultrasound. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23(4):544-7.

Hwang S, Adler RS.  Sonographic evaluation of the musculoskeletal soft tissue masses. Ultrasound Q. 2005;21(4):259-70

Adhikari S, Blaivas M, Lander L. Comparison of bedside ultrasound and panorex radiography in the diagnosis of a dental abscess in the ED.Am J Emerg Med. 2010 Apr 30

Adhikari S, Blaivas M. Sonography first for subcutaneous abscess and cellulitis evaluation. J Ultrasound Med. 2012 Oct;31(10):1509-12. Review. No abstract available.

Adhikari S, Blaivas M. Utility of bedside sonography to distinguish soft tissue abnormalities from joint effusions in the emergency department. J Ultrasound Med 2010 Apr;29(4):519–526.

Derr C, Shah A. Bedside ultrasound in the diagnosis of orbital cellulitis and orbital abscess. Emerg Radiol. 2012 Jun;19(3):265-7. doi: 10.1007/s10140-011-0993-0. Epub 2012 Feb 10. No abstract available.

Blankenship RB, Baker T. Imaging modalities in wounds and superficial skin infections. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2007;  25(1): 223-34.

Costantino TG, Satz WA, Dehnkamp W, Goett H. Randomized trial comparing intraoral ultrasound to landmark-based needle aspiration in patients with suspected peritonsillar abscess. Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Jun;19(6):626-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2012.01380.x.

Gaspari R, et al. Comparison of computerized tomography and ultrasound for diagnosing soft tissue abscess. Crit Ultrasound J. 2012;  4(1).

Gaspari R, Blehar D, Mendoza M, Montoya A, Moon C, Polan D. Use of ultrasound elastography for skin and subcutaneous abscesses. J Ultrasound Med. 2009 Jul;28(7):855-60.

Giovanni, JE et al.  Interexaminer agreement in physical examination for children with suspected soft tissue abscesses.  Pediatr Emer Care.  2011;27:475-478.

Grover CA, Gharahbaghian L. Unilateral facial swelling with fever. Parotitis. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Dec;58(6):e5-6. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2011.06.017


Iverson, K et al.  The effect of bedside ultrasound on diagnosis and management of soft tissue infections in a pediatric ED.  Am J Emerg Med:  In Press, epub 11/2011
Lyon M, Blaivas M. Intraoral ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected peritonsillar abscess in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2005 Jan;12(1):85-88.

Rehrer M, Mantuani D, Nagdev A. Identification of peritonsillar abscess by transcutaneous cervical ultrasound. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jan;31(1):267.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2012.04.021. Epub 2012 Jul 12.

Salihoglu M, Eroglu M, Yildirim AO, Cakmak A, Hardal U, Kara K. Transoral ultrasonography in the diagnosis and treatment of peritonsillar abscess.

Clin Imaging. 2013 May-Jun;37(3):465-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2012.09.023. Epub 2012 Oct 25

Sivitz AB, Lam SH, Ramirez-Schrempp D, et al. Effect of bedside ultrasound on management of pediatric soft-tissue infection. J Emerg Med 2010 Nov;39(5):637-643.

Squire BT, et al. ABSCESS: applied bedside sonography for convenient evaluation of superficial soft tissue infections. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;  12(7): 601-6.

Tayal VS, Hasan N, Norton HJ, et al. The effect of soft-tissue ultrasound on the management of cellulitis in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2006 Apr;13(4):384-388.

Yen Z-S, Wang H-P, Ma H-M, Chen S-C, Chen W-J. Ultrasonographic screening of clinically-suspected necrotizing fasciitis. Acad Emerg Med 2002 Dec;9(12):1448–1451.


Foreign Bodies:

Lyon M, Brannam L, Johnson D, Blaivas M, Duggal S.  Detection of soft tissue foreign bodies in the presence of soft tissue gas. J Ultrasound Med. 2004;23:677-81.

Crawford R, Matheson AB. Clinical value of ultrasonography in the detection and removal of radiolucent foreign bodies. Injury.1989;20:341-3.

Crystal CS, Masneri DA, Hellums JS, Kaylor DW, Young SE, Miller MA, Levsky ME  Bedside ultrasound for the detection of soft tissue foreign bodies: a cadaveric study. J Emerg Med. 2009 May;36(4):377-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.10.071. Epub 2008 Oct 18.



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