Procedural US Curriculum

US didactics

Week 1  – US Guided Nerve Blocks – Upper Extremity –

Week 2  –  US Guided Nerve Blocks – Lower Extremity –

Week 3  – US Guided Peripheral and Central Vascular Access –

Week 4 –  US Guided Pericardiocentesis, Thoracentesis and Paracentesis –

Week 5 –  US Guided Lumbar Puncture –

(US Guided Arthrocentesis to be covered in MSK section)

Reading/Review List:

SonoGuide: Vascular AccessPericardiocentesisThoracentesisParacentesisNerve Blocks,

SonoSpot: TutorialCasesStudiesTips & Tricks

Podcast: Soundbytes: ProceduralVascular Access; Ultrasound Podcast: Peripheral IVPericardiocentesisSupraclavicularParacentesisThoracentesisFemoral Nerve Block, USG Nerve block Part 1 and Part 2 and Part 3,

AIUM Practice Guidelines: Vascular Access , Peripheral IV,

AIUM UltrasoundFirst/Sound Judgment Series: Sonography of Lumbar spine procedures, US Guided INterscalene Blocks


Ma/Mateer/Blaivas chapters:

19. Vascular Access, John S. Rose, Aaron E. Bair, and Aman K. Parikh
20. Additional Ultrasound-Guided Procedures, Andreas Dewitz, Robert Jones, and Jessica Goldstein

Dawson/Mallin iBook chapters

Volume 1, Chapter 9 – Central Line

Volume 1, Chapter 11 – Brachial Plexus Nerve Blocks

Volume 2 – Lower extremity nerve blocks, Procedural chapters

Procedural Studies: Pubmed Collection

Procedural: General:

Tirado A, Wu T, Noble VE, Huang C, Lewiss RE, Martin JA, Murphy MC, Sivitz A. Ultrasoundguided procedures in the emergency department-diagnostic and therapeutic asset. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2013 Feb;31(1):117-49. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2012.09.009.

Procedural Studies: Vascular Access:

Peripheral Access:

Adhikari S, Blaivas M, Morrison D, Lander L. “Comparison of infection rates among ultrasound-guided versus traditionally placed peripheral intravenous lines.” J Ultrasound Med. 2010 May;29(5):741-7.

Bauman M, Braude D, Crandall C. Ultrasound-guidance vs. standard technique in difficult vascular access patients by ED technicians. Am J Emerg Med 2009 Feb;27(2):135-140.

Brannam L, Blaivas M, Lyon M, Flake M. Emergency nurses’ utilization of ultrasound guidance for placement of peripheral intravenous lines in difficult-access patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2004 Dec;11(12):1361-3.

Costantino TG, Parikh AK, Satz WA, et al. Ultrasonography-guided peripheral intravenous access versus traditional approaches in patients with difficult intravenous access. Ann Emerg Med 2005 Nov;46(5):456-461.

Costantino TG, Kirtz JF, Satz WA. Ultrasoundguided peripheral venous access vs. the external jugular vein as the initial approach to the patient with difficult vascular access. J Emerg Med. 2010 Oct;39(4):462-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.02.004. Epub 2009 Mar 20.

Keyes LE, Frazee BW, Snoey ER, Simon BC, Christy D. Ultrasoundguided brachial and basilic vein cannulation in emergency department patients with difficult intravenous access. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Dec;34(6):711-4.

Mahler SA, Massey G, Meskill L, Wang H, Arnold TC. Can we make the basilic vein larger? maneuvers to facilitate ultrasound guided peripheral intravenous access: a prospective cross-sectional study. Int J Emerg Med. 2011 Aug 25;4:53. doi: 10.1186/1865-1380-4-53.

Panebianco NL, Fredette JM, et al.  What you see (sonographically) is what you get: vein and patient characteristics associated with successful ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous placement in patients with difficult access.  Acad Emer Med2009; 16(12):1298-1303.

Riley DC, Garcia S. Emergency department ultrasonography guided long-axis antecubital intravenous cannulation: How to do it. Crit Ultrasound J. 2012 Apr 16;4(1):3. doi: 10.1186/2036-7902-4-3.

Schofer JM, Nomura JT, Bauman MJ, Hyde R, Schmier C. The “Ski Lift”: A technique to maximize needle visualization with the long-axis approach forultrasoundguided vascular access. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 Jul;17(7):e83-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00784.x. No abstract available.

Shokoohi H, Boniface K, McCarthy M, Khedir Al-tiae T, Sattarian M, Ding R, Liu YT, Pourmand A, Schoenfeld E, Scott J, Shesser R, Yadav K. Ultrasoundguided peripheral intravenous access program is associated with a marked reduction in central venous catheter use in noncritically ill emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Feb;61(2):198-203. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.09.016. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Teismann NA, Knight RS, Rehrer M, Shah S, Nagdev A, Stone M. The ultrasoundguided “peripheral IJ”: internal jugular vein catheterization using a standard intravenous catheter.J Emerg Med. 2013 Jan;44(1):150-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.02.044. Epub 2012 May 11


Central Access:

Atkinson P, Boyle A, Robinson S, Campbell-Hewson G. Should ultrasound guidance be used for central venous catheterization in the emergency department? Emergency Medicine Journal 2005;(22): 158-164

Bansal R, Agarwal SK, Tiwari SC, et al. A prospective randomized study to compare ultrasound-guided with nonultrasound-guided double lumen internal jugular catheter insertion as a temporary hemodialysis access. Ren Fail 2005;27 (5):561-564.

Blaivas M, Adhikari S. An unseen danger: frequency of posterior vessel wall penetration by needles during attempts to place internal jugular vein central catheters using ultrasound guidance. Critical care medicine. 2009;37(8): 2345-9

Denys B, Uretsky B, Reddy P. Ultrasound-assisted cannulation of the internal jugular vein. A prospective comparison to the external landmark-guided technique. Circulation 1993;87(5): 1557-62

Froehlich CD, Rigby MR, Rosenberg ES, et al. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement decreases complications and decreases placement attempts compared with the landmark technique in a pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2009 Mar;37(3):1090-1096.

Hind D, Calvert N, McWilliams R, et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;327-361

Karakitsos D, Labropoulos N, De Groot E, Patrianakos AP, Kouraklis G, Poularas J, Samonis G, Tsoutsos DA, Konstadoulakis MM, Karabinis A. Real-time ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein: a prospective comparison with the landmark technique in critical care patients. Crit Care. 2006;10(6):R162.

Leung J, Duffy M, Finckh A. Real-time ultrasonographically-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in the emergency department increases success rates and reduces complications: a randomized, prospective study. Ann Emer Med  2006;48(5):540-547.

Miller AH, Roth BA, Mills TJ, Woody JR, Longmoor CE, Foster B. Ultrasound guidance versus the landmark technique for the placement of central venous catheters in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Aug;9(8):800-5.

Moak JH, Lyons MS, et al.  Needle and guidewire visualization in ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation.  Am J Emer Med2011; 29(4):432-6.

Milling TJ, Jr., Rose J, Briggs WM, Birkhahn R, Gaeta TJ, Bove JJ, Melniker LA. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of point-of-care limited ultrasonography assistance of central venous cannulation: the Third Sonography Outcomes Assessment Program (SOAP-3) Trial.Crit Care Med. 2005;33(8):1764-1769.

Milling TJ, Holden C, et al.  Randomized controlled trial of single-operator vs. two-operator ultrasound guidance for internal jugular central venous cannulation.  Acad Emer Med 2006; 13(3):245-247.

Phelan M, Hagerty D. The oblique view: an alternative approach for ultrasoundguided central line placement. J Emerg Med. 2009 Nov;37(4):403-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.02.061. Epub 2008 Oct 1.

Stone MB, Nagdev A, et al.  Ultrasound detection of guidewire position during central venous access.  Am J Emer Med 2010; 28(1):82-84.

Stone MB, Moon C, Sutijono D, et al. Needle tip visualization during ultrasound-guided vascular access: short-axis vs long-axis approach. Am J Emerg Med 2010 Mar;28(3):343-347.


Procedural Studies: Nerve Blocks

Abrahams MS, Aziz MF, Fu RF. et al. Ultrasound guidance compared with electrical neurostimulation for peripheral nerve block: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Anaesth 2009 Mar;102(3): 408-417. Epub 2009 Jan 26.

Beaudoin FL, Nagdev A, Merchant RC, et al. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks in elderly patients with hip fractures.Am J Emerg Med. 2010 Jan;28(1):76-81.

Bhoi S, Sinha TP, Rodha M, et al. Feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided nerve block for management of limb injuries by emergency care physicians. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2012 Jan;5(1):28-32.

Blaivas M, Adhikari S, Lander L. A prospective comparison of procedural sedation and ultrasound-guided interscalene nerve block for shoulder reduction in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2011 Sep;18(9):922-7.

Blaivas M, Lyon M. Ultrasound-guided interscalene block for shoulder dislocation reduction in the ED. Am J Emerg Med.2006;24(3):293-6.

Beaudoin FL, Haran JP, Liebmann O. A Comparison of Ultrasoundguided Three-in-one Femoral Nerve Block Versus Parenteral Opioids Alone for Analgesia in Emergency Department Patients With Hip Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jun;20(6):584-91. doi: 10.1111/acem.12154

Berthier F, Lepage D, Henry Y, Vuillier F, Christophe JL, Boillot A, Samain E, Tatu L. Anatomical basis for ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia at the junction of the axilla and the upper arm.Surg Radiol Anat. 2010 Mar;32(3):299-304

Bhoi S, Chandra A, Galwankar S. Ultrasoundguided nerve blocks in the emergency department. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2010 Jan;3(1):82-8. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.58655.

Casati ABaciarello M, Di Cianni S, Danelli G, De Marco G, Leone S, Rossi M, Fanelli G. Effects of ultrasound guidance on the minimal effective anaesthetic volume required to block the femoral nerve. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:823-827.

Chan VW.  Applying ultrasound imaging to interscalene brachial plexus block. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2003; 28: 340-3.

Chan VW, Perlas A, McCartney CJ, et al. Ultrasound guidance improves success rate of axillary brachial plexus block. Can J Anaesth 2007 Mar;54(3):176-182.

Chin KJ, Wong NW, Macfarlane AJ, Chan VW. Ultrasound-guided versus anatomic landmark-guided ankle blocks: a 6-year retrospective review. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011;36(6):611-8.

Duggan E, El Beheiry H, Perlas A, Lupu M, Nuica A, Chan VW, Brull R. Minimum effective volume of local anesthetic for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 2009;34:215-8.

Fredrickson MJ, Patel A, Young S, Chinchanwala S. Speed of onset of corner pocket supraclavicular’ and infraclavicular ultrasound guided brachial plexus block: a randomised observer-blinded comparison.  Anaesthesia. 2009;64(7):738-44.

Gray AT, Schafhalter-Zoppth I. Ultrasound guidance for ulnar nerve block in the forearm. Reg Anesth Pain Med., 2003;28:335-339.

Haines L, Dickman E, Ayvazyan S, Pearl M, Wu S, Rosenblum D, Likourezos A. Ultrasoundguided fascia iliaca compartment block for hip fractures in the emergencydepartment. J Emerg Med. 2012 Oct;43(4):692-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.01.050. Epub 2012 Apr 9.

Herring AA, Stone MB, Fischer J, et al. Ultrasound-guided distal popliteal sciatic nerve block for ED anesthesia. Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Jul;29(6):697.

Hortense A, Perez MV, Amaral JL, Oshiro AC, Rossetti HB. Interscalene brachial plexus block. Effects on pulmonary function. Rev Bras Anesthesiology, 2010;60:130-7.

Jeon DG, Kim WI.  Cases series: ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block in 105 patients. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2010;58:267-71.

Jeon DG, Kim SK, Kang BJ, Kwon MA, Song JG, Jeon SM. Comparison of ultrasoundguided supraclavicular block according to the various volumes of local anesthetic. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2013 Jun;64(6):494-9. doi: 10.4097/kjae.2013.64.6.494. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Levesque S, Dion N, Desgagne MC. Endpoint for successful, ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Can J Anaesth,2008;55(5):308.

Liebmann O, Price D, Mills C, Gardner R, Wang R, Wilson S, Gray A. Feasibility of Forearm Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks of the Radial, Ulnar and Median Nerves for Hand Procedures in the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med, 2006; 48: 558-561.

Loewy J. Sonoanatomy of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2002;53(1):33-8. Review.

Luger TJ, Kammerlander C, Benz M, Luger MF, Garoscio I. Peridural Anesthesia or UltrasoundGuided Continuous 3-in-1 Block: Which Is Indicated for Analgesia in Very Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture in the Emergency Department? Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil. 2012 Sep;3(3):121-8. doi: 10.1177/2151458512470953

Marhofer P, Schrögendorfer K, Koinig H, Kapral S, Weinstabl C, Mayer N.  Ultrasonographic guidance improves sensory block and onset time of three-in-one blocks. Anesth Analg 1997/ 85: 854 – 857.

McCartney CJ, Xu D, Constantinescu C, Abbas S, Chan VW. Ultrasound examination of peripheral nerves in the forearm. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32(5):434-9. Erratum in: Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33(2):188.

Mittal R, Vermani E. Femoral nerve blocks in fractures of femur: variation in the current UK practice and a review of the literature. Emerg Med J. 2013 Feb 26. [Epub ahead of print]

O’Donnell BD, Iohom G. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. Anesthesiology, 2009; 111(1): 25-9

O’Donnell BD, Ryan H, O’Sullivan O, et al. Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with 20 milliliters local anesthetic mixture versus general anesthesia for upper limb trauma surgery: an observer-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jul;109(1):279-283.

Oberndorfer U, Marhofer P, Bösenberg A, Willschke H, Felfernig M, Weintraud M, Kapral S, Kettner SC.  Ultrasonographic guidance for sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in children.  Br J Anaesth 2007; 98: 797 – 801.

Perlas A, Brull R, Chan VW, McCartney CJ, Nuica A, Abbas S Ultrasound guidance improves the success of sciatic nerve block at the popliteal fossa. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008 May-Jun;33(3):259-65. doi: 10.1016/j.rapm.2007.10.010

Perlas A, Lobo G, Lo N, Brull R, Chan VW, Karkhanis R. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block: outcome of 510 consecutive cases.  Reg Anesth Pain Med.2009;34(2):171-6.

Reid N, Stella J, Ryan M, et al. Use of ultrasound to facilitate accurate femoral nerve block in the emergency department. Emerg Med Australas. 2009 Apr;21(2):124-30.

Redborg KE. Ultrasound improves the success rate of a tibial nerve block at the ankle. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 2009;34(3):256-60.

Redborg KE.  Ultrasound improves the success rate of a sural nerve block at the ankle. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 2009; 34(1):24-8.

Riazi S, Carmichael N, Awad I, Holtby RM, McCartney CJ. Effect of local anaesthetic volume (20 vs 5 ml) on the efficacy and respiratory consequences of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block. Br J Anaesth, 2008, 101(4):549-56.

Sandhu NS, Manne JS, Medabalmi PK, Capan LM. Sonographically guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block in adults: a retrospective analysis of 1146 cases. J Ultrasound Med, 2006;25(12):1555-61.

Schafthalter-Zoppoth I. The “see-saw” sign:  improved sonographic identification of the sciatic nerve. Anesthesiology. 2004;101:808-809.

Sinha A, Chan V W. Ultrasound imaging for popliteal sciatic nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:130-134.

Sites BD, Taenzer AH, Herrick MD, Gilloon C, Antonakakis J, Richins J, Beach ML Incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity and postoperative neurologic symptoms associated with 12,668 ultrasound-guided nerve blocks: an analysis from a prospective clinical registry. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012 Sep-Oct;37(5):478-82. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0b013e31825cb3d6

Stone MB, Price DD, Wang R. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block for the treatment of upper extremity fractures, dislocations, and abscesses in the ED. Am J Emerg Med 2007 May;25(4):472-475

Stone MB, Wang R, et al.  Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block vs procedural sedation for the treatment of upper extremity emergencies.  Am J Emer Med2008; 26(6):706-710.

Stone MB, Carnell J, Fischer JW, Herring AA, Nagdev A. Ultrasoundguided intercostal nerve block for traumatic pneumothorax requiring tube thoracostomy. Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Jul;29(6):697.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2010.06.014. Epub 2010 Aug 13. No abstract available.

Stone MB, Muresanu M. Ultrasoundguided ulnar nerve block in the management of digital abscess and hand cellulitis. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 Jan;17(1):E3-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00611.x. Epub 2009 Nov 5. No abstract available.

Williams R, Saha B.  Best evidence topic report. Ultrasound placement of needle in three-in-one nerve block.  Emerg Med J. 2006;23:401-03.


Procedural Studies: Thora and Para


Barnes TW, Morgenthaler TI, Olson EJ, et al. Sonographically guided thoracentesis and rate of pneumothorax. J Clin Ultrasound 2005 Dec;33(9):442-446.

Feller-Kopman D. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis. Chest 2006 Jun;129(6):1709-1714.

Gordon, CE et al.  Pneumothorax following thoracentesis:  a systematic review and metanalysis.  Arch Int Med.  2010;170:332-9.

Grogan, DR et al.  Complications associated with thoracentesis:  a prospective, randomized study comparing three different methods.  Arch Int Med.   1990;150:873-877.

Jones, PW et al.  Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis:  Is it a safer method?.  Chest.  2003;123:418-423.

O’Moore, PV et al.  Sonographic guidance in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in the pleural space.  Am J Roentgenol.  1987;149:1-5.

Patel, PA et al.  Complications and costs associated with thoracentesis procedures.  J Clin Ultrasound.  2012;40:135-141.

Raptopoulos V, Davis LM, Lee G, et al. Factors affecting the development of pneumothorax associated with thoracentesis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991 May;156(5):917-20.


Bard, C. et al.  Ascites:  Ultrasound guidance or blind paracentesis?  CMAJ.  1986;135:209-10.

Goldberg, BB et al.  Ultrasonic determination of ascites.  Arch Int Med.   1976;131:217-220.

Irshad, A. et al.  Can the smallest depth of ascetic fluid on sonograms predict the amount of drainable fluid?  J Clin Ultrasound.  2009;37:440-444.

Nazeer SR, Dewbre H, Miller AH. Ultrasound-assisted paracentesis performed by emergency physicians vs the traditional technique: a prospective, randomized study. Amer J Emerg Med 2005 May;23(3):363-367.

Procedural Studies: Pericardiocentesis

Garth AP, Hwang JQ, Schuur JD, Rosborough S. Ultrasound guided pericardiocentesis of cardiac tamponade. Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Aug;16(8):811. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00473.x. Epub 2009 Jul 9. No abstract available.

Nagdev A, Mantuani D. A novel in-plane technique for ultrasoundguided pericardiocentesis. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jun 25. doi:pii: S0735-6757(13)00296-9. 10.1016/j.ajem.2013.05.021. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

Ainsworth CD, Salehian O Echo-guided pericardiocentesis: let the bubbles show the way. Circulation. 2011 Feb 1;123(4):e210-1. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.005512. No abstract available

Ozer HO, Davutoğlu V, Cakici M, Doğan A, Sari I, Oylumlu M, Aksoy  [Echocardiography-guided pericardiocentesis with the apical approach]. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2009 Apr;37(3):177-81.

Aqel RA, Hage FG, Cogar B, Burri M, Wells B, Allison S, Zoghbi GJ, Perry G, Bittner V, Fan P, Nanda NC Transthoracic echocardiography guided procedures in the catheterization laboratory. Echocardiography. 2007 Oct;24(9):1000-7. Review

Cauduro SA, Moder KG, Luthra HS, Seward JB. Echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis for treatment of clinically significant pericardial effusion in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2006 Nov;33(11):2173-7.

Procedural Studies: Lumbar Puncture

Balki M, Lee Y, Halpern S, and Carvalho J.  Ultrasound Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in the Transverse Plane: The Correlation Between Estimated and Actual Depth to the Epidural Space in Obese Parturients.  Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2009; 108(6):1876-81.

Bruccoleri RE, Chen L. Needle-entry angle for lumbar puncture in children as determined by using ultrasonography. Pediatrics. 2011 Apr;127(4):e921-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2511. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

Cadigan BA, Cydulka RK, Werner SL, Jones RA. Evaluating infant positioning for lumbar puncture using sonographic measurements. Acad Emerg Med. 2011 Feb;18(2):215-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00977.x. Epub 2011 Jan 28.

Cummings T and Jones JS. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Use of ultrasonography for lumbar puncture.Emerg Med J, 2007; 24(7):492-3.
Ferre R and Sweeney T. Emergency physicians can easily obtain ultrasound images of anatomical landmarks relevant to lumbar puncture. Am J Emerg Med, 2007; 25:291-6.

Nomura JT, Leech SJ, Shenbagamurthi S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture. J Ultrasound Med 2007 Oct;26(10):1341-1348.

Peterson MA, Abele J.  Bedside ultrasound for difficult lumbar puncture. J Emerg Med 2005 Feb;28(2):197-200.

Stiffler KA, Jwayyed S, Wilber ST, et al. The use of ultrasound to identify pertinent landmarks for lumbar puncture. Am J Emerg Med 2007 Mar;25(3):331-334.

Strony R. Ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture in obese patients. Crit Care Clin,2010; 26(4):661-4.

Ayalin T, Lam SH.Ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture in infants. Acad Emerg Med. 2011 Apr;18(4):e36. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01044.x.

Abo A, Chen L, Johnston P, Santucci K.Positioning for lumbar puncture in children evaluated by bedside ultrasound. Pediatrics. 2010 May;125(5):e1149-53. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-0646. Epub 2010 Apr 19.

Procedural Studies: other

Jenkins JA, Gharahbaghian L, Doniger SJ, Bradley S, Crandall S, Spain DA, Williams SR. Sonographic Identification of Tube Thoracostomy Study (SITTS): Confirmation of Intrathoracic Placement. West J Emerg Med. 2012 Sep;13(4):305-11. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2011.10.6680


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