For Thoracic Studies on Pneumonthorax and Pleural Effusion – See the E-FAST Section.

Thoracic Studies PneumoniaPubMed Collection

Thoracic Studies Pulmonary Embolism : PubMed Collection

Thoracic Studies Pulmonary EdemaPubMed Collection

Thoracic US Studies: General:

Volpicelli G, Cardinale L, et al.  A comparison of different diagnostic tests in the bedside evaluation of pleuritic pain in the ED.  Amer J Emer Med 2011; xx(x):xxx-xxx

Zanobetti M, Poggioni C, et al.  Can chest ultrasonography substitute standard chest radiography for evaluation of acute dyspnea in the Emergency Department?  Chest 2010 [epub]

Silva S, Biendel C, Ruiz J, Olivier M, Bataille B, Geeraerts T, Mari A, Riu B, Fourcade O, Genestal M. Usefulness of cardiothoracic chest ultrasound in the management of acute respiratory failure in critical care practice. Chest. 2013 May 9. doi: 10.1378/chest.13-0167. [Epub ahead of print]

Lichtenstein DA, Mauriat P. Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill Neonate. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2012 Aug;8(3):217-223.

Cardinale L, Volpicelli G, Binello F, Garofalo G, Priola SM, Veltri A, Fava C.  Clinical application of lung ultrasound in patients with acute dyspnea: differential diagnosis between cardiogenic and pulmonary causes.  Radiol Med. 2009 Oct;114(7):1053-64. doi: 10.1007/s11547-009-0451-1. Epub 2009 Aug 20.

Anderson KL, Jenq KY, Fields JM, Panebianco NL, Dean AJ. Diagnosing heart failure among acutely dyspneic patients with cardiac, inferior vena cava, and lung ultrasonography. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jun 12. pii: S0735-6757(13)00282-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2013.05.007. [Epub ahead of print]

Reissig A, Copetti R, Kroegel C. Current role of emergency ultrasound of the chest. Crit Care Med. 2011 Apr;39(4):839-45. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206d6b8. Review

Volpicelli G, Caramello V, Cardinale L, Cravino M. Diagnosis of radio-occult pulmonary conditions by real-time chest ultrasonography in patients with pleuritic pain. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2008 Nov;34(11):1717-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2008.04.006. Epub 2008 Jun 4.

Volpicelli G, Frascisco M. Lung ultrasound in the evaluation of patients with pleuritic pain in the emergency department.  J Emerg Med. 2008 Feb;34(2):179-86. Epub 2007 Nov 19.

 Mantuani D, Nagdev A, Stone M.Three-view bedside ultrasound for the differentiation of acute respiratory distress syndrome from cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Sep;30(7):1324.e1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2011.06.028. Epub 2011 Aug 25

The role of Chest Ultrasound in patients with respiratory distress – an extensive review by the Italians: Document 1 : Document 2 –

ETUDES protocol

RADiUS protocol

BLUE protocol – Lichtenstein

FALLS Protocol – Lichtenstein

Thoracic Studies for Pneumonia:

Blaivas, M. Lung Ultrasound in Pneumonia. J Ultrasound in Medicine. 2012

Cortellaro F, Colombo S, Coen D, Duca PG. Lung ultrasound is an accurate diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of pneumonia in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2012 Jan.;29(1):19–23.

Shen P, Zong YM, Shu J, Shi YC, Zhu WJ, Qian HJ, Yang MX, Zhang M. Dynamic assessment of lung injury by ultrasound in a case with H7N9 influenza. Crit Care. 2013 Jun 18;17(3):438. [Epub ahead of print]

Darge K, Chen A. Point-of-care ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia in children. J Pediatr. 2013 Jul;163(1):302-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.04.059. No abstract available.

Medford AR. Chest ultrasonography as a replacement for chest radiography for community-acquiredpneumonia. Chest. 2013 Mar;143(3):877-8. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-2653. No abstract available.

Caiulo VA, Gargani L, Caiulo S, Fisicaro A, Moramarco F, Latini G, Picano E, Mele G. The role of ultrasound in community-acquired pneumonia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013 Feb 8. doi: 10.1002/ppul.22787. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

Darge K, Chen A. Ultrasonography of the lungs and pleurae for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: prime time for routine use. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Feb;167(2):187-8. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamapediatrics.409. No abstract available.

Gillman LM, Panebianco N, Alkadi A, Blaivas M, Kirkpatrick AW  The dynamic sonographic air bronchogram: a simple and immediate bedside diagnosis of alveolar consolidation in severe respiratory failure. J Trauma. 2011 Mar;70(3):760. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181ac8f82. No abstract available.

Shah VP, Tunik MG, Tsung JW. Prospective evaluation of point-of-care ultrasonography for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children and young adults. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Feb;167(2):119-25. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamapediatrics.107.

Tsung JW, Kessler DO, Shah VP. Prospective application of clinician-performed lung ultrasonography during the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic: distinguishing viral from bacterial pneumonia. Crit Ultrasound J. 2012 Jul 10;4(1):16. doi: 10.1186/2036-7902-4-16.

Reissig A, Copetti R, Mathis G, Mempel C, Schuler A, Zechner P, Aliberti S, Neumann R, Kroegel C, Hoyer H. Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow-up of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, multicenter, diagnostic accuracy study. Chest. 2012 Oct;142(4):965-72.

Thoracic US Studies for Pulmonary Edema:

Lichtenstein DA, Mezière GA, Lagoueyte JF, Biderman P, Goldstein I, Gepner A A-lines and B-lines: lung ultrasound as a bedside tool for predicting pulmonary artery occlusion pressure in the critically ill. Chest. 2009 Oct;136(4):1014-20. doi: 10.1378/chest.09-0001.

Lichtenstein D, Mezière G A lung ultrasound sign allowing bedside distinction between pulmonary edema and COPD: the comet-tail artifact Intensive Care Med. 1998 Dec;24(12):1331-4.

Lichtenstein D. Fluid administration limited by lung sonography: the place of lung ultrasound in assessment of acute circulatory failure (the FALLS-protocol). Expert Rev Respir Med. 2012 Apr;6(2):155-62. doi: 10.1586/ers.12.13. Review

Volpicelli G, Mussa A, Garofalo G, Cardinale L, Casoli G, Perotto F, Fava C, Frascisco M. Bedside lung ultrasound in the assessment of alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Oct;24(6):689-96.

Volpicelli G, Cardinale L, Garofalo G, Veltri A. Usefulness of lung ultrasound in the bedside distinction between pulmonary edema and exacerbation of COPD.  Emerg Radiol. 2008 May;15(3):145-51. doi: 10.1007/s10140-008-0701-x. Epub 2008 Jan 31.

Volpicelli G, Melniker LA, Cardinale L, Lamorte A, Frascisco MF Lung ultrasound in diagnosing and monitoring pulmonary interstitial fluid. Radiol Med. 2013 Mar;118(2):196-205. doi: 10.1007/s11547-012-0852-4. Epub 2012 Jun 28

Wimalasena Y, Windsor J, Edsell M.  Using ultrasound lung comets in the diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema: fact or fiction? Wilderness Environ Med. 2013 Jun;24(2):159-64. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2012.10.005. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Martindale JL, Noble VE, Liteplo A. Diagnosing pulmonary edema: lung ultrasound versus chest radiography. Eur J Emerg Med. 2012 Dec 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Liteplo AS, Murray AF, Kimberly HH, Noble VE. Real-time resolution of sonographic B-lines in a patient with pulmonary edema on continuous positive airway pressure.  Am J Emerg Med. 2010 May;28(4):541.e5-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2009.08.013. Epub 2010 Mar 25. No abstract available.

Noble VE, Murray AF, Capp R, Sylvia-Reardon MH, Steele DJ, Liteplo A. Ultrasound assessment for extravascular lung water in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Time course for resolution. Chest. 2009 Jun;135(6):1433-9. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-1811. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

Anderson KL, Jenq KY, Fields JM, Panebianco NL, Dean AJ Diagnosing heart failure among acutely dyspneic patients with cardiac, inferior vena cava, and lungultrasonography. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jun 12. doi:pii: S0735-6757(13)00282-9. 10.1016/j.ajem.2013.05.007.

Thoracic US Studies for Pulmonary Embolism:

Squizzato A, Rancan E, Dentali F, Bonzini M, Guasti L, Steidl L, Mathis G, Ageno W. Diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Jul;11(7):1269-78. doi: 10.1111/jth.12232

Zanobetti M, Bigiarini S, Coppa A, Conti A, Innocenti F, Pini R. Usefulness of chest ultrasonography in detecting pulmonary embolism in patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic renal failure: a case report. Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Oct;30(8):1665.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2011.09.021. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Leung AN, Bull TM, Jaeschke R, Lockwood CJ, Boiselle PM, Hurwitz LM, James AH, McCullough LB, Menda Y, Paidas MJ, Royal HD, Tapson VF, Winer-Muram HT, Chervenak FA, Cody DD, McNitt-Gray MF, Stave CD, Tuttle BD; ATS/STR Committee on Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy An official American Thoracic Society/Society of Thoracic Radiology clinical practice guideline: evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Nov 15;184(10):1200-8. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201108-1575ST.

Ceylan N, Tasbakan S, Bayraktaroglu S, Cok G, Simsek T, Duman S, Savaş R. Predictors of clinical outcome in acute pulmonary embolism: Correlation of CT pulmonaryangiography with clinical, echocardiography and laboratory findings. Acad Radiol. 2011 Jan;18(1):47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2010.08.024. Epub 2010 Oct 30.

Thoracic US Studies for pneumothorax/pleural effusion – see EFAST section


Bouhemad B, Brisson H, Le-Guen M, Arbelot C, Lu Q, Rouby JJ. Bedside Ultrasound Assessment of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure-induced Lung Recruitment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb. 1;183(3):341–7.

Kim WY, Suh HJ, Hong S-B, Koh Y, Lim C-M. Diaphragm dysfunction assessed by ultrasonography: influence on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2011 Dec.;39(12):2627–30.

Peris A, Tutino L, Zagli G, et al. The use of point-of-care bedside lung ultrasound significantly reduces the number of radiographs and computed tomography scans in critically ill patients. Anesth Analg 2010;111:687-92.

Volpicelli G, Elbarbary M, Blaivas M, Lichtenstein DA, Mathis G, Kirkpatrick AW, Melniker L, Gargani L, Noble VE, Via G, Dean A,Tsung JW, Soldati G, Copetti R, Bouhemad B, Reissig A, Agricola E, Rouby JJ, Arbelot C, Liteplo A, Sargsyan A, Silva F,Hoppmann R, Breitkreutz R, Seibel A, Neri L, Storti E, Petrovic T; International Liaison Committee on Lung Ultrasound (ILC-LUS) for the International Consensus Conference on Lung Ultrasound (ICC-LUS). Intensive Care Med. 2012 Mar 6. International evidence-based recommendations for point-of-care lung ultrasound.


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